Indonesia, in long form the Republic of Indonesia, in Indonesian Republik Indonesia, is a transcontinental country mainly located in Southeast Asia. With 13466 islands, of which 922 are inhabited, it is the largest archipelago in the world. With an estimated population of 265 million people, it is the fourth most populous country in the world and the first country with a Muslim majority for the number of believers. Indonesia is a republic whose capital is Jakarta.
Through its many islands, Indonesia has many distinct groups culturally, linguistically and religiously. The Javanese are the most represented population in terms of numbers and political influence. As a unitary state and as a nation, Indonesia has developed a common identity by defining a national language called “Indonesian” (which is one of the forms of Malay), and respecting its diversity and religious pluralism within its Muslim majority.
Despite its large population and densely populated areas, Indonesia has vast wilderness areas, which gives the country great biodiversity even though this heritage is shrinking due to rapidly increasing human activities.
Indonesia is located at the convergence of the Pacific Plate, the Eurasian Plate and the Australian Plate. This results in very strong volcanic activity and frequent earthquakes. The country has at least 150 active volcanoes, including Krakatoa and Tambora, both famous for their devastating eruptions in the nineteenth century. The eruption of the Toba super volcano 70,000 years ago was one of the largest eruptions of human prehistory and a global catastrophy. The country has also recently had to deal with major natural disasters such as the 2004 tsunami estimated to be at Sumatra’s victims of 167,736 people and the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake. Volcanic ash also contributed significantly soil fertility, which allowed agriculture to develop and maintain food for densely populated islands like Java and Bali.
Climate By its situation, Indonesia has a tropical climate, alternating wet season and dry season, an equatorial climate, with no variation or temperature, or rainfall, wet year round. Average annual precipitation ranges from 1,780 to 3,175 millimeters at low altitude to 6,100 millimeters in mountainous areas. The mountainous regions are particularly located on the west coast of Sumatra, West Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Papua, and are very watered. The humidity is often very high, around 80%. The average temperature varies little over the year; the average daily temperature in Jakarta varies between 26 and 30 ° C.